Little League survey: the Houston study.
Gugenheim JJ Jr, Stanley RF, Woods GW, Tullos HS. Am J Sports Med 1976 Sep-Oct;4(5):189-200
1. In a study of 595 Little League pitchers, approximately 17% had a history of elbow symptoms: only 1% had elbow symptoms which had ever excluded them from pitching. There was no correlation between the presence of symptoms and years of pitching experience. 2. Some limitation of active extension of the elbow was seen in 12% of the pitchers; however, there was no correlation between elbow flexion contractures and years of pitching experience, symptoms, or roentgenographic pathology. No normal child had an elbow flexion contracture greater than 15 degrees. 3. A slight valgus carrying angle is considered a normal anatomic variant in the dominant arm. There was no correlation between valgus carrying angle and years of pitching experience or symptoms or roentgenographic pathology. 4. No roentgenographic evidence of avascular necrosis of the capitellum, radial head, or both was seen in this population. 5. Roentgenographic findings such as bony hypertrophy, enlargement of the medial epicondyle, and secondary ossification centers are normal anatomic variants not related to symptoms. Undisplaced stress fractures of the medial epicondyle respond well to conservative treatment, with no functional residual.