Apophyseal injuries in the young athlete.
Peck DM. Am Fam Physician 1995 Jun;51(8):1891-5, 1897-8
Apophyseal injuries, which are unique in the adolescent athlete, cause inflammation at the site of a major tendinous insertion onto a growing bony prominence. These injuries typically occur in active adolescents between the ages of eight and 15 years and usually present as periarticular pain associated with growth, skeletal immaturity, repetitive microtrauma and muscle-tendon imbalance. Common apophyseal injuries, and their sites, include Sever’s disease (posterior calcaneus), Osgood-Schlatter disease (tibial tuberosity), Sindig-Larsen-Johansson syndrome (inferior patella), medial epicondylitis (humeral medial epicondyle) and apophysitis of the hip (iliac crest, ischial tuberosity). Conservative therapy, including rest, ice, compression, elevation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, modification of the athlete’s activity level and exercises for increased flexibility and strengthening, is usually effective.