Posterior cruciate ligament injuries of the knee joint.
Janousek AT, Jones DG, Clatworthy M, Higgins LD, Fu FH. Sports Med 1999 Dec;28(6):429-41.
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries have a reported incidence of between 3 and 37%, depending on the clinical setting. The most common mechanism of injury in motor vehicle accidents is a dashboard injury or direct force to the proximal anterior tibia. Sports related injuries result from hyperflexion of the knee with the foot typically plantarflexed. The latter mechanism is the most common cause of isolated PCL injuries, while in the trauma population as many as 95% of patients with knee injuries have combined ligamentous damage. Improved knowledge at an anatomical, biomechanical and clinical level has provided the orthopaedist with a more defined treatment algorithm. Isolated, partial PCL injuries (grades I and II) can best be treated nonoperatively while complete injuries (grade III) may require operative treatment based on clinical symptoms. All combined ligamentous injuries usually respond best with surgical management.