Technical pitfalls of collateral ligament surgery.
Jacobson KE. Clin Sports Med 1999 Oct;18(4):847-82.
The technical pitfalls of collateral ligament surgery include: Failure to properly diagnose and appropriately recommend surgery; posterolateral instability is the most commonly missed acute associated instability pattern Failure to correct all components of the injury (see Table 1): lateral meniscus, arcuate ligament, and popliteus, lateral gastrocnemius, and biceps muscles Failure to properly reattach and repair the damaged structures Peroneal nerve damage during the surgical approach and repair Wound problems: breakdown, hematoma Loss of motion This article presented a concise introduction to the anatomy of the collateral and capsular ligaments of the knee. This information should prove valuable in avoiding pitfalls in the diagnostic and surgical approach to the knee. To fully appreciate the anatomy, one must study it in the anatomy laboratory by performing repeated dissections. Only then can one appreciate how beautifully all of the structures function in unison. Application of this knowledge will help surgeons continue to improve and refine their approach to knee injuries.