Prophylactic training in asymptomatic soccer players with ultrasonographic abnormalities in Achilles and patellar tendons: the Danish Super League Study.
Fredberg U, Bolvig L, Andersen NT., Am J Sports Med. 2008 Mar;36(3):451-60
BACKGROUND: A recent study published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine showed that asymptomatic soccer players with an increased risk of developing Achilles and patellar tendon injuries within the next 12 months can be identified with use of ultrasonography. HYPOTHESIS: Prophylactic eccentric training and stretching can reduce both the frequency of asymptomatic ultrasonographic changes in Achilles and patellar tendons in soccer players and the risk of these asymptomatic intratendinous changes becoming symptomatic. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: Two hundred and nine Danish professional soccer players from the best national league (Super League) were followed over 12 months with use of ultrasonography and injury registration. Half the teams were randomized to an intervention group with prophylactic eccentric training and stretching of the Achilles and patellar tendons during the soccer season. RESULTS: The eccentric training and stretching did not reduce the injury risk, and, contrary to all expectations, the injury risk during the season was increased in players with abnormal patellar tendons at the beginning of the study in January. Eccentric training and stretching in players with normal patellar tendons significantly reduced the proportion of players with ultrasonographic changes in the patellar tendons at the end of the season (risk difference [RD] = 12%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-22%; P = .02), but the training had no effect on the Achilles tendons (RD = 1%; 95% CI, -7% to 9%; P = .75). The presence of preseason ultrasonographic abnormalities in the tendons significantly increased the risk of developing tendon symptoms during the season (relative risk = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1; P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that with the use of ultrasonography, tendon changes in soccer players can be diagnosed before they become symptomatic. The prophylactic eccentric training and stretching program reduces the risk of developing ultrasonographic abnormalities in the patellar tendons but has no positive effects on the risk of injury. On the contrary, in asymptomatic players with ultrasonographically abnormal patellar tendons, prophylactic eccentric training and stretching increased the injury risk.