Herniated cervical intervertebralp discs with radiculopathy: an outcome study of conservatively or surgically treated patients.
Heckmann JG, Lang CJ, Zobelein I, Laumer R, Druschky A, Neundorfer B. J Spinal Disord 1999 Oct;12(5):396-401.
To study the functional outcomes of patients with cervical herniated intervertebral discs with radiculopathy but without signs of cervical myelopathy using a retrospective cohort study design. The patients were retrospectively identified by chart reviews. Inclusion criteria were (a) cervical radiculopathy with defined neurological disturbances (sensory disorder, reflex abnormalities, and motor weakness); (b) a spinal computed tomograph scan or magnetic resonance image demonstrating neuroradiologic abnormalities (soft or hard disc); and (c) completion of conservative physical and pharmacological treatment. Of 119 consecutive patients who were treated at the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1995, 60 patients met the inclusion criteria and were prospectively assessed, with an average follow-up time of 5.5 years. The patients were interviewed with regard to their daily activities, ability to work, and the surgical treatment they had undergone. A complete neurological examination also was performed. In 88.3%, the onset of disease was acute and in 11.7% subacute or chronic. The most common signs and symptoms were brachialgia (98.3%), neck pain (93.3%), sensory disorders (88.3%), reflex abnormalities (61.7%), and motor weakness (51.7%). The neuroimaging procedures demonstrated a disc prolapse (soft disc) in approximately 90% and spondylotic osteophytes (hard disc) in approximately 10%. During an average follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 4.6 months-10.6 years) 39 (65%) patients had been treated using only conservative methods (COG = conservatively treated group), and 21 (35%) patients had undergone surgery (ventral discectomy) (SUG = surgically treated group). Brachialgia was completely or essentially improved in 100% of the COG and 95.1% of the SUG. Sensory disorders remitted completely or markedly in 97% of the COG and 75% of the SUG. The reflex abnormalities normalized or improved in 59.2% of the COG and in 53.3% of the SUG. Motor weakness improved in 94.1% of the COG and in 50% of the SUG. Neck pain was difficult to treat. It improved in only 36.1% of the COG and in 20% of the SUG. Occupational capacity was lost in 10% of the COG and in 38.9% of the SUG. In a self-rating scale, 89.7% of patients in the COG did not feel disabled in their everyday activities, compared with 66.7% of the patients in the SUG. Patients with a herniated cervical intervertebral disc with radiculopathy can be treated conservatively with good results, although a residual intermittent neck pain syndrome often persists. The patients in the SUG, who initially showed more severe and long-lasting neurological disturbances, were improved at the time of examination, although with more marked residual disorders. Surgery is indicated only when appropriate conservative treatment for a reasonable time has failed.