Baslund B, Thomsen BS, Jensen EM. Ugeskr Laeger 1991 Jan 14;153(3):170-3.
Humero-scapular periarthrosis (PH) is defined as an idiopathic painful condition in the shoulder with simultaneous limitation of active and passive movements in all directions. The condition is characterized by three phases: a painful period, a period dominated by stiffness and a period of recovery. PH is commonest between the ages of 40 and 60 years and the cumulated risk is estimated to be 2%. The incidence is higher in diabetics. The cause of PH is unknown and knowledge of the pathogenesis is very limited. Histological examination shows inflammation and fibrosis. Association with other pathological conditions of the upper limb or medical conditions, except diabetes mellitus, has not been documented with certainty. The average duration is 30 months but recovery without functional defects is common. Treatment is symptomatic and consists primarily of analgesics and rest during the painful phase. Local injections of steroids may be of effect. Exercises may be employed once the pain is under control and these have the object of improving mobility and increasing muscular strength.